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1. How did Dovid Hamelech know when exactly midnight occured vis-a-vis Moisheh Rabeinu who approximated ? 

2. An incidental tale about Dovid Hamelech when asked advice about the economic plight of the people leading to voluntary warfare. 

3. Did Moisheh Rabeinu not know when midnight was and Dovid Hamelech did know ? 

4. The travails, trials and rewards Has-hem bestowed upon Dovid Hamelech.

5. If Dovid really consider himself a chosid as mentioned above why did he say the following ?: VERSE: LULEI HEEMANTI LIROIS BETIV ADNIS BEERETZ CHAIM. SOURCE: Teh,27.13

6. Analyzing the various time frames of the ending times for reciting the Shema and the rational for this.

 7. The requirement of saying the Shema prior to reciting the Tefiloh (18 Brochois). 




1. How did Dovid Hamelech know when exactly midnight occurred vis--vis Moisheh Rabeinu who approximated ? PROOF: Was Moisheh Rabeinu able to show when exactly midnight (Makois Bechoirois) would be and was not able to say so ? 

SOURCE: ShemBo11.4 [4] 



R'ACHA BAR BIZNO/R'SHIMOIN CHASIDO - A musical instrument was suspended and would play when a north breeze would blow at precisely midnight. 

R'YITZCHOK BAR ADA or BEREI DERAV EEDEE - The Posuk to substantiate the musical instrument is as follows: 

PROOF: That a musical instrument woke up Dovid Hamelech. 

SOURCE: Teh57.9 



1. TOISEFOIS - That Moisheh Rabeinu needed to know exactly when midnight was and could not merely tell Paroih "approximately" so that he could not be refuted if they made a mistake. 

2. MOOIOR VOSHOMESH - That Moisheh Rabeinu needed to know exactly when midnight was and could not merely tell Paroih "approximately" so that Paroih cannot claim that evil forces which are powerful until midnight which reigned supreme Moisheh Rabeinu rather than Yad Has-hem's. 

3. RASHI - The instrument was a wind type and faced north which produced the midnight wind thus making Dovid Hamelech aware of midnight. (The Arbah Ruchois blow East[morn], South[aftern], West[eve], North[night] corresponding to the sun travel). {MARSHO - Shaking of the Lulov, SIFSEI CHACHOMIM - Shabos also worked?,MOISOF YERUSHOLAYIM - Alarm clock on Shabos is permitted, RASHBO/HIE GOOIN - The instrument was an alarm clock with water or air and settable depending on length of night, BEN YEHOIYODOH - The wind was a spiritual one created by Dovid Hamelech's Toiroh and Tefiloh up to that point, MEIRI - This was meant also for people to hear in order to motivate them too}. 




2. An incidental tale about Dovid Hamelech when asked advice the morning following a midnight duty about the economic plight of the people leading to voluntary warfare. He answered "barter your services". The sages in turn said "a handful cannot satisfy a lion and a pit cannot be refilled completely with the same earth". He answered "use the troops (GEDOOD)". They went to Achisoifel for tactical advice, to the Sanhedrin for permission and Tefilos, to the Koihein Godoil's Urim Vetumim for the result of the war and then to the chief of the military. 


R'YOISEF - A proof of the above (Advisor, Sanhederin and Kohein Godoil) was as follows: PROOF: To substantiate that the chain of command sequence occurred as stated. 

SOURCE: DivHayI27.24


**  Omud  2
PROOF: To substantiate who the Sanhedrin were (decisive and distinctive in their words). 

SOURCE: ShmII20.23 



1. TOISEFOIS - Dovid Hamelech suggested to take from the rich and give to the poor, therefore, according to the RABEINU TAM the pit parable meant water from an underground well will not fill up a pit. 

2. APTER ROV (OIHEIV YISROEIL) - The Gemoro in Gitin says that the amount of charity one gives is proportional to the beneficence he begets which is what Dovid Hamelech was alluding to when advising "barter your services" to which the sages felt people were not up to doing. 

3. SIFREI MUSOR - Exhorts us through this chain method of inquiry that in any endeavor in life, first, to ask advice and research it properly, second, be mispaleil and lastly, have faith in Has-hem. 

4. RASHI - Evyosor was the Kohein Godoil until Avsholoim since the Urim Vetumim would not answer him and was given to Tzodoik. 

5. RALBAG - There were two families named Kreisi and Pleisi from where most of the Sanhedrin came. 

6. TOISEFOIS - Explains the discrepancy of YEHOIYODO BEN BENOYOHU in the first Posuk and BENNOYOHU BEN YEHOIYODO in the Second Posuk as being father and his heir both being the head of the Sanhedrin. 




3. Did Moisheh Rabeinu not know when midnight was and Dovid Hamelech did know ? 


R'ZEIRO - Moisheh Rabeinu and Dovid Hamelech new exactly when midnight was but Dovid needed the instrument to awake and Moisheh said "approximate" so that Paroih won't accuse him of a mistake if the astronomers made a mistake. R'ASHI - Moisheh Rabeinu meant with the expression "Kachatzois" midnight tonight (the 14th of Nisan) like the midnight of last night (the 13th of Nisan). 


1. MEDRISH - That R'Yoichonon ben Zakie went to Aspiyones and was locked up for awhile but knew what time it was by repeating his studies and timing them. Or that he knew the 12 combinations of the Ineffable Name which dominate at different times thereby being able to know the time. 

2. CHOFETZ CHAIN - Was observed wailing about 15 minutes of lost time that he couldn't remember, indicating that great people track their time without clocks. 




4. The travails, trials and rewards Has-hem bestowed upon Dovid Hamelech. PROOF: To analyze Dovid Hamelech's words in the following discussion of Leivi and R'Yitzchok:


SOURCE: Teh.86.2 


SOURCE: Teh.119.62 


LEIVI & R'YITZCHOK - One says that Dovid meant to say "am I not pious as I awake at midnight to praise you while other kings sleep until 3 hours into the night ?, and the other says that Dovid meant to say "my hands are bloody from examining women's discharges (miscarriages of fetus's, placenta's) in order to permit them to their husbands vis--vis menstrual purity while other kings sit around with entourages in royal company in majestic style". "I furthermore drew no honor from this by humbling myself to Mefiboishes (actual name Ish Boshes, earned his name through embarrassing Dovid by pointing out mistakes) my teacher by double checking my decisions unabashed", readily admitting mistakes. 

R'YEHOISHUA BREI DERAV EEDEE -The meaning of the following verse is to analyze Dovid Hamelech's words, regarding his unabashed ness with Mefiboishes, in the aforementioned discussion between Leivi and R'Yitzchok. This character trait of Dovid's earned him that Kilov descend from him. 


SOURCE: Teh.119.46 

R'YOICHONON - Opines that his (Kilov's) name was Denieil but was called Kilov due to his greatness in Halochoh to even embarrass Mefiboishes (from the expression Machlim, Lechaleim). On this son Kilov Sloimoh Hamelech said the following (2) pesukim:


SOURCE: Mish.23.15 


SOURCE: Mish.27.11 




5. If Dovid really consider himself a chosid as mentioned above why did he say the following ?: 


SOURCE: Teh,27.13



R'YOISI - Points out that the word "lulei" is dotted on top in order to expound upon. Dovid said to Has-hem, I am sure that You intend to repay the righteous with goodness in the future. I just do not know whether I fall into that category at all since I have transgressed. 

R'YAAKOIV BAR EEDEE - In regards to Yaakoiv Ovinu the following verse to imply that his transgressions caused him to fear that the promise of Has-hem was perhaps no longer in affect:


SOURCE: BerVayeitz.28.15 [1-2]


SOURCE: BerVayish.32.8 [1-2]

 As borne out in the following posuk in the case of our first entrance to Israel (1st "ad yaavoir") and our second entrance (2nd "ad yaavoir"). Which means that we were entitled that the 1st and 2nd redemption should have been equal (Yehoishua's and Ezra's). However, our transgressions caused that the 2nd return relegated us to subjugation to Poras, Koireish, Achashveiroish, Dayoiresh, etc. 


 SOURCE: BerBesh.15.16 [4(5)-3(4)] 


1. RASHI - The fetus is the skin in which the tendons, bones and flesh is contained and after a certain time it may be considered a viable birth in terms of cleanliness of the wife. The placenta as well creates impurity since we assume that a fetus may have dissolved inside. 

2. NETZIV - Explains "neged malochim" to mean contrary to the way kings do. Kings never want to admit their mistakes by always covering up, whereas Dovid was not embarrassed "veloi eivoish". 

3. TZLACH - How can Dovid call his Rebi by his name Mefiboishes ? The SIFSEI CHACHOMIM points out the real name as being Ish Boishes. 

4. MARSHO - Discusses the possibility of Mefiboishes being either the son or grandson of Shaul. 

5. ANONYMOUS - That "Chorfi" meaning taunting, is meant for the masses who doubted Dovid's sincerity were proven wrong with the birth of a great sun like Kilov. 

6. BEN YEHOIYODOH - Explains the expression "am I not a Chosid ?" as being a necessary defensive tone for the suspicion on him regarding the gossip around Bas Sheva. So by involving himself with respectable issues of purity between husband and wife to the point of risking shame. 

7. R'TZODOIK HAKOIHEIN - In his seifer Takonas Hashovim explains that the occurrence of the Bas Sheva conflict showed us that the contribution to life that Dovid made to allow for tshuvoh in case one does stumble was greater that what Yoisef made when he paved the way to avoid aveirois. So Dovid entered the realm of trespass to clarify the acceptance of tshuvoh beyond any shadow of a doubt. 

8. RASHI - Points out that in (2) pesukim in Seifer Divrei Hayomim both names are ascribed to Dovid's second son, Kilov and Denieil, as being born from the same mother, Avigayil. Also that the name Kilov means Kol Ov, every bodies father, a step ahead. 

9. RASHI - When Dovid had the encounter with Shaul in the cave he tried to appease him, saying KI GEIRSHUNI HAYOIM MEIHISTAPEIACH BENACHLAS ADNIS, ShmI.26.19(21), you have chased me from being a part of the camp of Has-hem, I have no self worth. 

10. MESHECH CHOCHMOH - Points out that the omission of Has-hem's name in the 2nd "ad yaavoir" was beneficial to us since the sensitivity to transgressions was absent. Similar to a daughter of a Koihein cannot eat Trumoh ever again if she was illicit. A Leivi's daughter on the other hand does not lose the privilege since the holiness is not so great. This is why today we draw more kedushah since the destructive force was likewise not that great. 




6. Analyzing the various time frames of the ending times for reciting the Shema and the rational for this. Do the Chachomim hold like R'Gamlieil who say it occurs when the morning star rises or like R'Elieizer who hold when people go to sleep? Concluding, the Chachomim hold like R'Gamlieil, however, they instituted a preemptive, preventive ban or measure ending the time frame at midnight so that people should surely not miss the final time by first snacking, napping and missing the recital of Shema by oversleeping but rather forcing us to first say the Shema. This discipline helps the person to achieve a strict schedule for himself. If one, however should pass the midnight time he would be guilty of capital punishment. This harshness is deemed warranted because the urge to sleep and miss the Shema is a very real and natural possibility ! and also to dispel the notion that the evening Shema is not an obligation but merely voluntary. 


1. RASHI - Explains that the Gemoro's discussion is how to understand "uvshochbecho", is it when people go to sleep or is it while people are sleeping?, so R'Gamlieil holds that the ending time for saying the Shema is when the morning star rises because he holds "uvshochbecho" means all night and R'Elieizer holds that the ending time for saying the Shema is by the end of the first watch because that is when people go to sleep which is his meaning of the word "uvshochbecho". 

2. YAAROIS DEVASH - Explains the anomaly of a written law not requiring capital punishment and an oral law of Shema recitation deserving of the death penalty by likening it to a perpetrator being caught after committing a theft will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law as opposed to being caught during the robbery and killing him. The chachomim are the pursuers and are considered like the guards of behalf of the Torah meting out punishment greater than that of the written law itself due to the potential lightheadedness and danger of people at times ignoring the precepts of oral law ! 

3. RAMBAM - The prohibition of eating before the Shema is from its requirement and on. 

4. RASHBO, RABEINU YOINOH, MECHABER (235.5) - The prohibition of eating before the requirement of reciting the Shema is 1/2 hour before that time and if one ex post facto does start before the time of the Shema he must stop and recite the Shema in middle of his meal. 

5. REMO - Says in the name of the RAN in the 1st peirik in Meschto Shabos that he is obligated interrupt his meal and to recite the Shema, albeit not Maariv, and resume his meal and afterwards Daven Maariv. The MISNOH BERUROH explains this as being the case because Maariv is derived from the oral law. 

6. TUR, TOISEFOIS, ROSH - State that it is prohibited to eat an entire meal before the Shema, however, a snack would be permitted. 

7. TERUMAS HADESHEN - That even to taste something is prohibited based on this above subjected Gemoro which depict the scenario of just snacking or napping may lead one to miss the Shema. 

8. TAZ - Claims that a snack is o.k. because our Gemoro uses the expression of just "eating" a little bit may lead one to miss the Shema ruling out a snack which constitutes tasting and not "eating". 

9. R'AKIVA EIGER - Opposes the MOGEIN AVROHOM and tries to bring proof from Toisefois (Gilyoin to the Mishnieyois) that eating is prohibited. 

10. POISKIN - If one has a fixed time every day or appoints a reminder to Davem Maariv he may eat after the time for the Shema. 

11. MOGEIN AVROHOM - That because according to RASHI we Daven Maariv too early and we fulfill the reading of the Shema at the bed one is therefore permitted to eat before the Shema. 

12. REMOH - To show the importance of Davening Maariv on time during Purim would dress as a beggar and knock on peoples' doors and interrupt their merriment to ask for water to wash for Maariv in order to remind them of Maariv on time. 





7. The requirement of saying the Shema prior to reciting the Tefiloh (18 Brochois). 


MAR - One must say the Shema then the Tefiloh. 

R'YOICHONON - That the Maariv requires that Shema be said prior the Tefiloh. His reasoning is twofold, one an opinion, is that since the Geuloh began at night albeit a minor point it is nevertheless similar to the main Geuloh which occurred during the daytime, and two a posuk, "beshochbecho uvkumecho", just like when one arises one recites the Shema before the Tefiloh similarly at night also. 

R'YEHOISHUO BEN LEIVI - That the Maariv requires that the Tefiloh be said in the middle, prior to the Shema, 1st Shema in the morning then Tefilois Maariv and then Shema. His reasoning is twofold, one an opinion, is that since the main Geuloh took place during the daytime it is not necessary to consider the night as same, and two a posuk, "beshochbecho uvkumecho", just like in the morning when arising the Shema is said near bedside albeit before the Tefiloh similarly at one's bedtime when one recites the Shema it is also after the Tefiloh. 

MAR BEREIH DERAVINO - Questions R"Yoichonon's view by pointing to a Gemoro stating a requirement by the Rabonon of two brochois before and after Shema interrupting the contiguity of Shema and Tefiloh. This is answered by saying that the two brochois before the Tefiloh are extensions of the Birchas Geuloh. As R'Yoichonon says just like the Rabonon ruled to say the brochoh before the Tefiloh "ADNIS SEFOSIE TIFTOCH..." (tEH.51.17) and the brochoh after the Tefiloh "YIHYU LEROTZOIN IMREI FI..." (Teh.19.15) also comprises one long Tefiloh and as well does not constitute an interruption. 


1. RASHI - The main redemption occurred in the morning quoting the posuk "MIMOCHARAS HAPEISACH YOTZU BNEI YISROEIL" and the requirement of combining the two is alluded to in the posuk "ADNIS TZURI VEGOIALI" and "YAANCHO ADNIS BEYOIMTZOROH" and if not according to a Yerushalmi it is likened to one who knocks on the door of a king and departs before it is opened, meaning that a similar consequence will befall him. Stressing that the opportune time for Tefiloh is when the redemption is close at hand. 

2. POSKIM - All are of the opinion that in the morning the Shema must be said before the Tefiloh and most are of the opinion that even an interruption of "omein" may not be uttered. 

3. PENEI YEHOISHUA - The reasoning of R'Yoichonon and R'Yehoishua ben Leivi is only a dependent (asmachto) reasoning because Tefiloh is a requirement of the oral law and does not need this intensive proof. The RAMBAM as well feels this way even though he holds that Tefiloh is derived from the written law, however, the time at which to Daven is based upon oral law. 

4. RAMBAN - Says that due to the interruption of Geuloh to Tefiloh one should not say "Boruch adnis leoilom omein veomein". 

5. RITVO - Holds that R'Yoichonon's view of Maariv that it is mandatory while we rule that it is voluntary, however the RAMBAMN says that we accepted Maariv as a mandatory Tefiloh but since the initial structure was as a voluntary one we allow the saying of "Boruch adnis leoilom omein veomein" although R'Yoichonon would not have allowed it. The RITVO further explains the origin of "Boruch adnis leoilom omein veomein" as being added to contain the "adnis" 18 times to replace the Shemoineh Esrei when people would be afraid to stay longer in the evenings as they live far from the shules and would thus say the actual Shemoineh Esrei at home. We held on to this Tefiloh as a custom. 

6. MECHABEIR - In (236.2) states that there is the requirement of Geuloh Litefiloh at night and Maariv is technically voluntary and "Boruch adnis leoilom omein veomein" should be said with only Kadish as the permitted interruption. He points out a RASHBO as saying in a Tshuvoh that calling out a reminder by the Gabie is not an interruption because it is necessary for the Tefiloh, but not during any other time in the Maariv. The REMOH that during the morning Tefiloh we do not permit calling out the reminders. 

7. RMOH - in (236.1) says that one should stand when reciting "Boruch adnis leoilom omein veomein". The MISHNEH BERUROH in (236.10) says that one should not stand during "Boruch..." to differentiate between thin and the actual Shemoineh Esrei. The ELIYOHU RABOH and PERI MEGODIM that the MISHNEH BERUROH brings in the SHAAREI TZIYOIN that if one chooses to stand it should be made to appear different that when one stands during the Shemoineh Esrei. 

8. MISNEH BERUROH - Says that if one is not up to "Boruch adnis leoilom omein veomein" when the people have reached Shemoineh Esrei he should omit it and continue with the tzibure. The TAZ and ELIYOHU RABOH say that one should complete it afterwards. The MISHNEH BERUROH in MOGEIN AVROHOM also says one should complete it afterwards, however MIESEH RAV says that since originally it was meant for before the Shemoineh Esrei it should not be said afterwards. The MISNEH BERUROH suggests that without the brochoh at the end it may be said afterwards. 

9. MECHABEIR - In (236.3) says that during Maariv if one comes late he can begin by saying with the tzibure Shemoineh Esrei. This is so only if there is no other tzibure. During the morning Tefiloh one could not begin this way. Geuloh Litefiloh cannot be waived at morning Tefiloh. 

10. RITVO - In the name of the RABEINU YOINOH says that if one combines Geuloh Litefiloh and does not interrupt in between them he indeed merits the world to come if he believes that Has-hem is the one who took him out of Egypt, to which the RANBAN says is the root of our belief, and immediately davens's for help and by making it very clear that Has-hem is the only one who can help.

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