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BEKIUS OF MESECHTA BROCHOIS DAF 3

1. How many watches are there each night, how long do they last and at what point during the watch is the propitious moment, all for the purposes of determining the ending time for the evening Shema? 

2. Why Has-hem roars (shoeig) three times each night corresponding to the three watches? 

3. R'Yosi's experience with entering a ruin and meeting Eliyahu Hanavi. 

4. Why one is not permitted to enter a ruin.

 5. How many watches is the night divided into, three or four? 

6. What discussions are permitted in the midst of a deceased. 

 7. When did Dovid Hamelech wake up and how long he stayed awake ?

 

 

SUBJECT

1. How many watches are there each night, how long do they last and at what point during the watch is the propitious moment, all for the purposes of determining the ending time for the evening Shema? 

MASTER AND POSITION

 R'ELIEZER - There are three watches, each watch lasts four hours and the zman for ending the Shema is at the end of the first watch. 

TO PROVE 

That there are not four watches and that the heavenly signs do not occur at the beginning or middle of the watch. 

SOURCE: Yer25.30 

VERSE: ...HAS-HEM MIMOROM YISHUG...SHAOG YISHAG AL NOVEIHU...

 PROOF: That there are three watches each night since the expression a "ROAR" occurs three times. 

NOTES 

1. PNEI YEHOSHUA - The three simultaneous occurrences, the burro baying, the dogs barking and the child nursing/wife talking to her husband, happen throughout the respective watch and therefore an exact moment cannot be pinpointed to determine the propitious zman by simply attempting a physical inspection and therefore must be determined by analysis. 

2. ROSH - The various moments when the creatures sound off or intensify their sounds is to tell us when Has-hem's mercy abounds and to daven in order to benefit from it. 

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SUBJECT

2. Why Has-hem roars (shoeig) three times each night corresponding to the three watches? 

MASTER AND POSITION

R'YITZCHOK BAR SHMUEL - Lamenting once for the Beis Hamikdosh, once for the Holy of Holies and once for the exile amongst the nations. 

TO PROVE 

To identify the essence of the outcries of Has-hem. 

NOTES 

1. GRAH - Opines that roars refer to the loss of the heavenly Beis Hamikdosh, the loss of the the earthly Beis Hamikdosh and the loss of untold number of Jewish people to assimilation. 

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SUBJECT 

3. R'Yosi's experience with entering a ruin, meeting Eliyahu Hanavi, hearing a Bas Kol in the form of a dove cooing the following verse "...es Beisi..., ... es .heichali, vehigleisem..." and Eliyahu Hanavi's discourse and disclosure that the Bas Kol occurs three times daily and also when we enter the Botei Kneisios and say "Yehei Shemei..." Has-hem says "Praised is the king...". and Has-hem nods saying exalted is the king who is so glorified so in His House, what gain is there to exile his children and woe is to the children who are banished from their father's table. 

MASTER AND POSITION 

R'YOSI - Learned three lessons: Not to enter a ruin, one may daven on the road and a shorter davening, called Havineinu, is permitted. 

TO PROVE 

That the ruins we find ourselves in today are due to our sins and that there is hope, provided that we conduct ourselves in the right manner ie. we reverse our behaviors. 

NOTES 

1. RASHI - Opines that roars are due to the loss of the heavenly Beis Hamikdosh, the loss of the the earthly Beis Hamikdosh and the loss of untold number of Jewish people to assimilation. 

2. TOSFOS - The shorter davening meant by Eliyahu Hanavi is the Havineinu rather than the Tefiloh Ketzoroh which is recited in dire times. That the MACHZOR VITRI explains that "Yehei shmei..." is a Tefiloh which signifies the hope for the completeness of Has-hem's name which will occur when the name of Amaleik, who prevents us from receiving the Shechina, is eradicated. Also that "Mevorach" is a separate Tefiloh and alludes to the hereafter. Also, the view that the Kadish is said in Aramaic due to the reluctance to make the Malochim jealous of our beautiful praises in Lashon Hakodesh is disputed by the fact that there exists many other beautiful praises being said in Lashon Hakodesh without this concern, therefore, the reason is due to the unlearned folks' inability to understand Lashon Hakodesh so after Kiruv lectures the Kadish, praises, was said also in Aramaic to further their inspiration. On another note, the jealousy aspect is due to the Malochim's spiritual level does not rise or fall, whereas ours does and therefore each saying of Kadish does raise our level, thereby hiding the Kadish from them. 

3. ELIYAHU RABAH - Kadish was said in Aramaic in order to fool the Romans who decreed that jews who said it in Lashon Kodesh not say it. 

4. SMICHAS CHACHOMIM - Interprets the gemorah's intent of R'Yosi's use of lengthy description on how he entered the ruin as meaning R'Yosis's reluctance to enter. He however saw that this place once contained Kedushah and was induced to go in and Daven. Has-hem consoled him by comparing that Kedushah to that of the Beis Hamikdosh which was also ruined.  

5. BEN YEHOYODOH - Expounds on the previous mention of the lion's roar which was at night and represents the attribute of judgement versus the cooing of the dove during daytime and represents the attribute of kindness. This is related to the three (3) Tefilos which when said properly will bring the Redemption. The long reference of "destruction of destructions" signifies his realization of this and longing to Daven and bring this Redemption. 

6. DIBAS SHLOMO - Explains the above further, that Eliyahu Hanavi waiting at the door represents his hoping that the heavenly longing to bring the Redemption was at hand and R'Yosi's Tefiloh was effective and was ready to hear the "good news" and go and bring Moshiach. 7. R'NOCHOM MICHERNOBYL - A lore about his attempt to bring Moshiach an inkeeperand his wife protest by asking that instead of going to Israel and leave everything behind to expel the evil element and enjoy the fruits of our labor in the diaspora, pointing out the lack of passion for the real meaning of the purpose of Moshiach. 

 

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SUBJECT 

4. Why one is not permitted to enter a ruin. 

MASTER AND POSITION 

 RABONIM - Due to suspicion of illicit relations, dangerous conditions and the presence of demons. 

TO PROVE 

That all three reasons are necessary as analyzed in the case of one person, two people learned or ignorant, a new ruin, an old ruin, in demon territory and in an isolated field: 

 

 ONE PERSON 

TWO PEOPLE

OLD RUIN 

NEW RUIN 

 OLD RUIN 

NEW RUIN 

 

IGNORANT 

LEARNED

IGNORANT 

 LEARNED

SUSPICION Yes/No* Yes/No* Yes No  Yes No 
DANGEROUS  Yes No  Yes Yes No  No 
DEMONS  Yes Yes No/Yes**  No/Yes**  No/Yes**  No/Yes** 

   * In an an isolated field. 

** In demon territory. 

1. "Suspicion" is needed since the ruin may be a new one and fairly safe and there are two ignorant people and therefore "demons" and "dangerous" are ruled out. 

 2. "Dangerous" is needed in the case of two learned ones in an old ruin where "suspicion" and "demons" would be ruled out. 

** Omud 2
3. "Demons" are needed since the ruin may be a new one and fairly safe and even with two learned people in demon territory "suspicion" and "dangerous" would be ruled out. Or you can say that the case can consist of one person and a newly fallen ruin which is fairly safe but is located in the field where "suspicion and "demons" would not be suspected.

 

 NOTES

1. SHAAR YERUSHALAYIM - In the Shivchei R'Chaim Vital a legend is brought down where the Ari Zal sent R'Chaim to nullify the demons in a temple in Damascus, which he did and was therefore buried across the street. This place became a burial site for other great people in his honor. 

2. MESECHES KEDUSHIN - The Gemora relates a story of a Beis Hamedrash where a demon resided in and when R'Yaakov bar R'Acha came to this town Abaye would not permit anyone to put him up so he would have to spend the night in the Beis Hamedrash wherein a miracle happened where each time he would bow down a serpent with seven heads would lose a head. This was a result of conceit and insolence that produced this demon and each time he would bow it would destroy one part through his humility.

3. RAMBAM & TUR - One is not permitted to daven in a ruin. 

4. LECHEM MISSHNAH - Asks why onlky to daven is one not allowed to enter, what about even just plain entering? However he explains that even to daven one is not allowed to enter. 

5. RAMBAM & SMAG - Regarding Yichud, plain people are not considered eminent, prominent or distinguished to be exempt from being secluded with a woman. 

6. RIF, RASHBA, RITVO, ROSH, RAN, RMO & GROH - Opines that plain people are considered eminent as to be allowed to be secluded with a woman unless it is known otherwise. 

7. MARSHAL - Holds that qne eminent and one illiterate is permitted seclusion with a woman. This is discussed in Even Ezer 22.5, 178.10 & Yoreh Deah 353.4.

 

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 SUBJECT 

 5. How many watches is the night divided into, three or four?

 MASTER AND POSITION

SOURCE: Shof7.19 

VERSE: VAYOVO GIVON...ROSH HOASHMORES HATICHONOH...

 R'NOSON - There are three. PROOF: Since "HATICHONOH" means the middle, it implies one on each side, thereby three. REBI - There are four. 

PROOF: 

That "HATICHONOH" means the middle of one of the two middle ones and can imply four. ("HATICHONOH" implies only one middle one, so another proof was needed for Rebi as follows by R'Zereika et al.) R'ZEREIKA, R'AMI, R'YEHOSHUA BEN LEVI 

SOURCE: Teh119.62 

VERSE: CHATZOS LYLOH OKUM... 

SOURCE: Teh119.148 

VERSE: KIDMU AINY ASHMUROS...

 REBI - There are four. 

PROOF: 

"CHATZOS" is the midddle and "ASHMUROS" signifies two, therefore alltogether four, two before and two after. 10 11 

R'NOSON - There are three. PROOF: R'Noson holds like R'Yehoshua that Krias Shema is recited untill three hours into the day when kings wake up. Therefore, "ASHMUROS" meant four hours, one third of the night from two to six, plus two hours in the morning the plurality. 

R'ASHI - Learns that from twelve (chatzos) untill six can be considered plural as four hours and two hours, which is more than one watch.

 

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 SUBJECT 

6. What discussions are permitted in the midst of a deceased. 

MASTER AND POSITION 

 R'ZEREIKA, R'AMI, R'YEHOSHUA BEN LEVI - Only disccussions pertinent to a deceased are permitted in its midst. 

R'ABA BAR KAHANE - Only Torah is not permitted due to its inability to any longer to perform Mitzvos, but any other discussions it is not jealous of that. Some say that he meant that even Torah cannot be discussed. 

NOTES 

1. TOSFOS - The RIF in the name of the HAI GAON that only Torah is not to be discussed within four cubits of a deceased. It is argued that if discussing Torah shows a disinterest in the needs of the deceased then outside of four cubits would also be forbidden to discuss Torah.

2. RASHI - The reason for disallowing Torah discussions is due to the inability of the deceased to further study. 

3. RAMBAM, ROSH, RABEINU CHANANEL, HAGAOS MAIMONES, RIMEGASAH - LIke the RIF.

 4. BEHAG - That any discussion cannot take place within four cubits of a deceased. 

5. SHILDOS - In Parshas Chayei Soroh says only pertinent discussions for the deceased may take place in its midst.

 6. BEIS YOISEF - In the name of the RIMEGASH that Torah pertaining to the deceased is permitted.

 7. RAV POALOM - That Torah learned in the name if the deceased is permitted and deduces it from the Yeshivah built at Chizkiyohu Hamelech's memorial. 

8. TAZ - Exhorts that during a eulogy the speaker should not be impressing the listeners with his advantageous moment of capturing their attention and admiration but rather of solace and comfort for the deceased. This is discussed in Yoreh Deah 282.4, 367.3, 376.4, Orach Chaim 71.7 (See Einayim Lemishpat on Meseches Brochos for these sources).

 

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SUBJECT 

7. When did Dovid Hamelech wake up and how long he stayed awake ? 

MASTER AND POSITION 

R'OISHIO/R'ACHA - That midnight never appeared that Dovid Hamelech should be sleeping. 

R'ZEIRO - That untill midnight Dovid Hamelech would drowse like a horse and afterwards would be fully awake like a lion. 

R'ASHI - That untill midnight Dovid Hamelech would be learning and afterwards would be singing to and praising Has-hem. 

PROOF: That Dovid was up already before midnight.

SOURCE: Teh119.147 VERSE: KIDAMTI BANESHEF VOASHAVEIOH... 

SOURCE: Mish7.9 VERSE: BANESHEF BOEREV YOM...

PROOF: That "NESHEF" means day and not night. 

SOURCE: ShmI30.17 

VERSE: VAYAKEIM DOVID MEIHANEFESH VEAD HOEREV... 

ROVO - "NESHEF" can mean day or night since it means removal of the day or the night depending on the context. 

NOTES

1. PNEI YEHOISHUA - That the apparent discrepancy of when Dovid Hamelech arose is no problem due to the fact that the essence of rising during the night represents the various propitious moments of the changing of the watches at which point Dovid Hamelech was always up. He may have been sleeping in between and therefore his actual awaking time may have indeed varied. 

2. METZUDOIS - That lions become more ferocious when it is cold and nevertheless Dovid Hamelech struck one of them as stated in the Posuk in DivHayI11.23 & ShmII23.20 "...VEHIKOH ES HOARI BESOICH HABOIR BEYOIM HASHELEG" 

3. BEN YEHOIYODOH - That the expression "MISGABEIR KOARI" tells us that Dovid Hamelech gained more energy and stamina during the cold winter moreso than in a warm environment unlike human nature which tries to warm up on cold night 

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