Last update:Thursday, February 21, 2013 06:12:04 PM
WITH THE HELP OF THE AL-MIGHTY WHO GIVES THE POWER OF WORDS TO MORTALS IN ORDER TO LEARN AND SPREAD HIS TORAH WITH TRUTHFULNESS.
THIS WORK IS NOT MEANT TO REPLACE ACTUAL STUDY OF THE WRITTEN AND ORAL TORAH BUT RATHER AS ANOTHER TOOL TO CAPTURE A BIT OF ADDITIONAL ESSENCE AND TO ENCOURAGE THE FURTHERANCE OF ITS STUDY. "LEHAGDIL TORAH VEYADIROH".
THIS WORK WAS METICULOUSLY PREPARED IN AN ORDER FOLLOWING THE DAF ITSELF. SOMETIMES FOR CONCISENESS AND CLARITY AN ITEM WILL BE FOUND IN ANOTHER SEQUENCE (IE. LATER MATERIAL BROUGHT IN EARLIER AND VICE VERSA).
THE NOTES SECTION WAS GROUPED BY SUBJECT MATTER AS FAR AS PRACTICAL..
THE SYMBOL ** INDICATES THE POINT WHERE OMUD 2 BEGINS FOR THE DAF IN STUDY.
THERE IS A WONDERFUL DAF YOMI PROGRAM ONLINE THAT ENCOMPASSES THE COMPLETE SHAS. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS.
BEKIUS OF MESECHTA BROCHOIS DAF 2
MASTER AND POSITION
R'ELIEZER - When the first watch in the Bais Hamikdosh ends.
CHACHOMIM - At midnight.
R'SHIMON BEN GAMLIEL - Anytime before the morning star appears.
SOURCE: DevVes6.7 [Parsha 6(5)-(6)7]
VERSE: ...UVSHOCHBECHO UVKUMECHO.
SOURCE: BerBer1.5 [Parsha 1-2]
VERSE: ...VAYEHI EREV VAYEHI BOKER YOM ECHAD.
PROOF: That evening Shema is stated first (before the morning Shema).
SOURCE: VayAchMos22.7 [Parsha 2-3]
VERSE: UVO HASHEMESH VETOHAIR...
PROOF: That the eating of Terumah requires the setting of the sun and not a sacrifice.
Stating the Mishna
** Omud 2
MASTER AND POSITION
RABAH BAR R'SHAILA - The word Vetohair is for the day, since Vayithar would've applied to the person.
Tangential discussion of the word Uvo in the verse whether it means sunset.
MASTER AND POSITION
R'MEIR - When people (Bnei Adam) begin to eat the Erev Shabbos meal.
CHACHOMIM - When the Cohanim become fit (Zakoin) to eat the Terumah.
To ponder if Bnei Adam on Erev Shabbos and Aniyim on each day eat simoultaneously (ie. the same time) and to attempt to prove that the zman when the Oni eats and the zman when the Cohanim eat Terumah are distinct and different..
VERSE: VEANACHNU OSIM HAMELACHA ... MEALOS HASHACHAR AD TZAIS HACOCHAVIM; ...VEHOYOH LONU HALAYLOH MISHMAR VEHAYOM MELACHAH.
PROOF: An inference that Terumah eating time is when the stars appear since "work by day" constitutes from the appearance of the morning star to the evening stars after which time Terumah is permitted.
MASTER AND POSITION
R'ELIEZER - At the onset of Shabbos (Kiddush Hayom).
R'YEHOSHUA - When the Cohanim purify (Mitharin) themselves for the purpose of eating the Terumah.
R'MEIR - When the Cohanim immerse for the purpose of eating Terumah.
R'YEHUDAH - Immersing will have occurred by day however! )
R'CHANINA - When the poor people (Aniyim) eat.
R'ACHA - When most people begin to eat (Lehasev).
That the time when poor people eat and the time when Cohanim are ready to eat are distinct and different, ie. R'Chanina and R'Yehoshua hold separate views.
MASTER AND POSITION
R'YOSI - The time it takes for the blink of an eye.
R'MEIR - Same as R'Yosi above.
To correlate the statement of R'Yehudah above that according to himself the interval lasts a sizable amount of time (also the view of R'Eliezer) he is therefore not in contradiction vis-a-vis his statement on R'Meir's view above that Cohanim will be immersing by day. This would only occur according to R'Yehudah and not R'Meir.
EVEN EZER - Explains that the relationship of immersion and sunset as regards the purification process is similar to a wound (the tumah) that heals, so to speak through the immersion process, and the scars of the tumah which remain until complete healing is achieved or attained that is when the day is over, at sunset.
1. RASHI - In the olden days when we Davened early we did so in order to enter the Tefilah with Divrei Torah (per a Braise in Yerushalmi), but had to be repeated Al Hamitah after dark and the Mitzvah was fulfilled.
2. TOSFOS - Disagrees with Rashi because the Brochos must be recited with the Shema. Although the AriZal recommends doing this but is not the Halacha. Furthermore the Al Hamitah is for the purpose of diverting the Mazikin.
3. R'TAM - Calls the main Shema, Shel Bais Hakneses.
4. RASHI - The burning of the fats had no midnight deadline.
5. RAMBAM - The burning of the fats did have a midnight deadline.
6. TOSFOS - The burning of the fats did have a midnight deadline but ex pos facto was able to pass the deadline.
7. SHAGAS ARYE - That the RAMBAM meant that even ex pos facto you couldn't pass the midnight deadline.
8. RASHBA, CHINUCH, BARTENURA - Agree with Rashi.
9. MEIRI & TZLACH - No deadline was imposed because Cohanim are zealous.
10. CHASAM SOFER - Expounds as to why the Gemorah goes into meticulous technicalities and does not cover the basic laws first such as the need for Shema in the first place. The reason being that the main points are obtained directly from Rebbe to Talmid and from Shimush Talmidei Chachomim.
11. TZLACH - Eating Terumah is permitted before Shema because the eating itself is a Mitzvah as opposed to eating the regular meal which is not permitted before the Shema.
12. GRAH - In the Shnos Eliyahu states that first the Shema is recited then the Trumah was eaten, correlating further that the eating of Terumah and the reciting of the Shema are Kabalistically the same, since in both cases the deed proper allows the remaining food or time to be permissible.
13. TOSFOS - Interprets Uvo Hashemesh as Bias Oro which means sunset, when it is still daylight and Vetohair means that the person will become purified. Thus he will not have to wait for the next day to eat Terumah.
14. NETZIV - If the time frame for the Oni eating is LATE it is due to his having to work late hours to earn enough. If the time frame for the Oni eating is EARLY it is due to his having no candles and must arrive home early enough to see in daylight.
15. RITVO - Suggests the assumption in the Gemorah that the time frame for eating is the same for Bnei Adam and Oni is due to the fact that one (Bnei Adam) cooks the meal early on Erev Shabbos and one (Oni) does not have much food to prepare.
16. RASHI - The celestial starting time for reciting the evening Shema is: (Chachomim = Tzais (2nd) R'Eliezer = Bain Hashmoshos (1st) R'Meir = Before B.H. (4th) R'Chanina = After Tzais (3rd) R'Yehoshua = Tzais (5th) R'Acha(i) = Way after Tzais
17. RASHBA - On the question of whether the time when the Oni eats is a LATE or EARLY one (see NETZIV above) will make a difference in the views of R'Chanina and R'Eliezer as well as with R'Meir; if EARLY then R'Chanina's view (when aniyim eat) is no different than R'Eliezer's (beginning of Shabbos) or R'Meir's (when Cohanim immerse) views. Therefore the Oni's time is a LATE one.
18. PNEI YEHOSHUA and RITVO - Suggests that the time frame for the Aniyim eating is represented by a range rather than a specific time. So if the Aniyim do not all eat at once it would be conceivable that R'Chanina's view will coincide with R'Eliezer's and R'Meir's (ie. it doesn't fit in).
19. MEIRI - Holds that R'Eliezer's B.H. is 1st and R'Meir's before B.H. is 2nd (later), notwithstanding RASHI'S view above (see note 16). Since R'Meir's B.H. is like R'Yosi's (Keheref Ayin) and R'Eliezer's B.H. is like R'Yehuda's (Kechatzi Mil) R'Meir's time zone coexists or fits into R'Eliezer's and conceivably R'Eliezer's time could be the earlier one even if ostensibly R'Meir's sounds earlier. The Meiri also holds that R'Acha(i)'s time period is the latest one for starting to recite the Shema.
20. MHARSHA - Holds that R'Chanina's time period is the latest one for beginning to recite the Shema since the Gemorah's expression for the Oni's time period is the term MEUCHAR. This represents THE latest moment allowed to recite the Shema (ie. not later than Tzais).
21. HAI GAON - (According to the Rashbah) the dispute revolves around the meaning of Uvo Hashemesh as follows: R'Eliezer = Beginning of sunset. R'Yehoshua = Sun totally set, Tzais R'Meir = Few seconds before sun totally set. R'Chanina = Uvshochbecho and not night but rather when Aniyim retire for the night. R'Acha(i) = Uvshochbecho and not night but rather when all others retire for the night.
22. On R'Meir's view of Bnei Adam eating on Erev Shabbos being at odds with his view of Cohanim immersing which he says occurs either a few seconds before the total setting of the sun or Tzais, the Ritvo and Rashi will differ as to when Bnei Adam eat: RASHI - Has to be later than immersion per TOSFOS who assesses that people are not that hungry on Erev Shabbos to rush home early and eat. RITVO - Has to be earlier than immersion because people Daven early on Erev Shabbos and indeed arrive home early and eat. In either case R'Meir's views differ with each other.
23. HAI GAON - Holds that R'Eliezer's view of Kiddush Hayom occurs at Shkias Hachamah and not at Bain Hashmoshos.
24. RAMBAM, RASHI, HAI GAON in Tur, R'CHANANEL, SADIA GAON in Siddur, RASHBA and CHINUCH - All hold that the start of Shema is at Tzais like the Mishna.
25. SMAG, R'TAM - Hold that one cannot ignore the earlier time periods for starting Shema.
26. ROSH - Permits ex pos facto recital of the Shema before Tzais but only in predicaments. Also in the case when a Minian gathers for Mincha and a burden or imposition would exist to reassemble, earlier Shema is authorized, sanctioned and condoned. Fundamentally, however, the Stam Mishna governs, as when R'Yehoshua and R'Eliezer dispute R'Yehoshua prevails, that Tzais and not later is the proper time for Shema.
27. ROSH - In the name of HAI GAON it is better to Daven with an exclusive, single or solitary Tzibur on an early basis than privately and timely.
28. BIUR HALACHAH - Davening alone at the proper time is better than with a premature Tzibur.
29. MECHABER - Siman 235:1 requires the appearance of (3) small stars for the reciting the Shema. The Mishna Berura says that (3) medium stars are required which occurs earlier. Since we are not expert at this distinction we depend on the later one of the small stars. Furthermore, Siman 235:11 states that only the 1st two Parshas need to be repeated in the case of an early Tzibur. The 3rd was fulfilled earlier.
30. SHAGAS ARYE - Opines that a G-d fearing person recites all 3.
31. MOGEN AVRAHAM - Mishna Berura in Siman 235:12 opines that Al Hamitah does not fulfill the obligation even with (3) Parshas because its function is to chase away demons. Furthermore,inattentiveness or the mindless recitation of the Shema as fulfilling a spirit of awe and reverence which is indeed esen- tial does not promoted same at bedtime.
32. DISCUSSION ON TZAIS - When is Tzais? At the appearance of (3) stars is an under statement. In Pesochim 94: (4) milin, which is (72) minutes, elapse between sunset and (3) stars. In Shabbos 34: Bain Hashmoshos immediately follows sunset. It also states that B.H. takes (15) minutes. The R'TAM rectifies the apparent discrepancy by accounting for the beginning and end of sunset which accounts for the (72) minutes. The GRAH holds that nightfall is (15) minutes after the beginning of sunset and reconciles differently. The YEREIM hold that Bain Hashmoshos is (15) minutes before sunset. Some hold that the Gemorah's judgement is not for all parts of the world, that starlight may be even before sunset or even hours after sunset. In addition, does the length of the day affect the zmanim? These complexities point the way to more study!